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This project wants to recreate Ethereum on Polkadot



The MoonBeam project is planning on setting up a custom parachain that emulates the Ethereum Virtual Machine environment, effectively recreating Ethereum (ETH) on Polkadot (DOT).

Developers on Polkadot and some other interoperability projects usually need to set up an entire blockchain to host their decentralized apps. While Polkadot’s Substrate framework is intended to make this process simpler, not all DApps need that level of control over their environment.

MoonBeam seeks to become a kind of Ethereum emulator for Polkadot, running on the same virtual environment that is currently powering all smart contracts on Ethereum.

The team says that this allows Ethereum DApp developers to only make minimal changes to their code and maintain use of developer tools like Truffle and Metamask. At the same time, the integration with Polkadot would allow for easy interoperability with the rest of the Polkadot ecosystem. Other Substrate modules will still be available, allowing developers to implement on-chain governance, social recovery for wallets, and other features with ready-made code.

The team claims that MoonBeam is a more affordable smart contract platform with strong on-chain governance — often emphasized by Polkadot co-founders as a necessity for blockchain systems.

MoonBeam will also be interoperable with Ethereum and Bitcoin (BTC), thanks to dedicated bridges built by other teams.

Nonetheless, the competition in the DApp scalability space is tough, as multiple layer-one chains compete with Ethereum-native layer-two solutions. While DeFi largely cemented Ethereum’s dominance in the smart contract space, the limitations of its blockchain became apparent in the summer of 2020. MoonBeam and Polkadot are some of many projects looking to capitalize on this by providing an alternative platform. Other names include Solana, Binance Smart Chain, Near Protocol and Cosmos.

MoonBeam’s launch date is yet to be determined, as it depends on Polkadot’s Parachain offering auctions going live. While most expect it to happen around Q1 of 2021, no clear launch date is set.

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Compound liquidator makes $4M as oracles post inflated Dai price




The crypto market suffered a powerful crash on Thursday morning UTC, which sent prices of major currencies like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) tumbling in excess of 10%.

When traders rush for the exits, the price of stablecoins generally increase as the demand for stability rises. In today’s crash, however, the effect became particularly pronounced on Dai (DAI), which briefly traded for $1.3 between 7 and 8 AM UTC.

Dai/USD price on Coinbase, courtesy of TradingView

Most notably, DAI traded at this inflated valuation only on Coinbase and Uniswap, while other exchanges including Kraken and Bitfinex seem to have maintained a relatively stable price.

Dai/USD price on Bitfinex, courtesy of TradingView

Coinbase and Uniswap are the two exchanges used by Compound’s Open Price Feed oracle. The former acts as the baseline, while the latter is used as a sanity check and anchor. Nonetheless, it appears that Uniswap failed in its function and also posted a much higher price than normal.

Compound’s liquidation this morning amounted to $89 million, of which about $52 million came from DAI, according to data from DuneAnalytics.

One liquidation in particular is notable for its extremely large size of 46 million DAI repaid.

As DeFi researcher Sam Priestley explained, this liquidation was performed on a leveraged COMP farmer, who used USD Coin (USDC) and DAI collateral to power recursive borrowing in the same currencies. The apparent increase in DAI price put the account below the liquidation threshold.

The liquidator seized almost 2.4 billion cDAI, worth approximately $50 million with a price of $0.0209, while returning just $46 million in DAI. This is expected behavior given Compound’s current liquidation incentive of 8%.

The transaction in question involved the use of a flash swap from Uniswap and calls to update Compound’s oracle. Another four transactions issued by the same liquidator removed an additional $6 million in debt.

The event highlighted the dangers of relying on just a few data points for oracles, Chainlink (LINK) founder Sergey Nazarov told Cointelegraph. “We predicted this very exploit of centralized oracles and poor data quality over a year ago,” he said, mentioning his explanation of the risks of using a single exchange. He continued: 

“DeFi protocols that rely on centralized oracles that pull data from single exchanges, DEXes or otherwise, are inadvertently putting user funds at risk. […] The Chainlink network was unaffected by this exploit because we source data from multiple leading data providers and hundreds of exchanges, making sure we capture the real-world price of a cryptocurrency through proper market coverage.”

While there is no evidence to suggest active manipulation, the fact that DAI price jumped specifically on the exchanges used by Compound’s oracles could draw suspicion. In general, the liquidation adds to the recent flash loan hacks to highlight DeFi’s excessive reliance on just a few data sources as oracles, Nazarov concluded.

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Less is more… and more is coming




On June 19, 2020, Ethereum increased its gas limit by 25% from 10 million to 12.5 million. In no less than two days, this newfound capacity was used up, bringing the block use right back to 100%. This cat-and-mouse game between a higher gas limit and a surge in use has occurred the last three times Ethereum has raised its gas limit. There is evidently a genuine market demand to use Ethereum, but the gas prices are prohibitively expensive for most use cases. This is where Ethereum 2.0 comes in.

What does Ethereum 2.0 bring to the table? In a nutshell, it is a multiyear plan to improve the scalability, security and programmability of Ethereum, without compromising on decentralization. Under what Vitalik Butirin refers to as a “rollup-centric ethereum,” Ethereum will soon be able to scale to around 3,000 transactions per second with rollups alone — without Eth2 — and up to 100,000 transactions per second once Ethereum 2.0 Phase 1 comes along, through the use of sharded chains with data storage.

Related: Ethereum 2.0 staking, explained

After experiencing this summer’s surge in gas fees, which sometimes even surpassed 450 Gwei, it is clear that scalability improvements cannot come soon enough. The coming improvements will not only significantly lower the barrier to entry to otherwise prohibitively expensive smart contracts but also provide a whole new array of opportunities for developers to combine Ethereum’s composable “money legos” in ways that were previously infeasible.


Another key feature of Ethereum 2.0 that often goes overlooked is its improved security. Proof-of-stake offers different security guarantees than proof-of-work. For instance, if someone has the means to perform a 51% attack on a PoW network, they can continuously perform these attacks, even after the chain soft forks. Under PoS, validators are not only rewarded for acting honestly but also penalized for attempting to cheat the network.

Related: Proof-of-stake or proof-of-work, that is the question

One such penalty in Eth2 is called a “slashing.” Slashing occurs when a validator is caught acting in a provably destructive manner. When this happens, the validator is forced to exit, penalizing some of or all of its financial stake. The end result is that an attacker cannot attack the chain without incurring a significant financial loss. PoW does not have an equally impactful in-protocol financial disincentive.

Related: Smart contract standards: Making DeFi transactions on Ethereum more secure

In addition, the Ethereum Foundation is building a dedicated security team for Eth2 to ensure the robustness and safety of the upcoming upgrade. This security effort comes in addition to the Eth2 special audit by Least Authority and the many others for the Eth2 clients preparing for launch. One thing is clear: Security continues to be one of the top priorities throughout the transition process.

Not only will it be harder to attack the network thanks to disincentives like slashing, but the network will also have the potential to be more decentralized. While most PoS chains have a small number of validators, Ethereum 2.0 will activate with at least 16,384 validators staking their Ether (ETH). On top of that, PoW mining pools primarily exist to make income streams more consistent, but since this is not a problem under PoS, we are less likely to end up with a handful of pools controlling a majority of the network.

Related: Ethereum 2.0’s long and winding road to scalability launch

With this update, Eth2 clients will help ensure that the full benefits of Ethereum can be enjoyed on a myriad of devices, including resource-constrained devices such as older mobile phones and embedded devices, not just powerful smartphones and PCs.

Decentralization and non-censorship

Currently, many services built on Ethereum rely on Infura, a hosted Ethereum node cluster that provides scalable access to Ethereum. However, in order for the Ethereum ecosystem to be both secure and successful, Eth2 clients should make it an important long-term goal to replace all centralized elements, like Infura, with decentralized alternatives. Doing so is both a matter of principle and a valuable way to strengthen the privacy and individual sovereignty of the Ethereum ecosystem at large.

As part of the Ethereum community, it is necessary to create the foundations for a network that can support a whole new host of innovative platforms and ideas. In order to achieve widespread adoption, Ethereum must be usable everywhere around the world, with the same speed and performance as current high-throughput networks. It must also be usable by anyone in the world, regardless of the hardware available to them, in a manner that is resistant to censorship.

After this week’s confirmation for a Dec. 1 launch, and with rollup scaling solutions improving in leaps and bounds every week, Ethereum’s time has finally arrived.

The views, thoughts and opinions expressed here are the author’s alone and do not necessarily reflect or represent the views and opinions of Cointelegraph.

Corey Petty is the chief security lead at Status. Corey started his blockchain-focused research around 2012 as a personal hobby while doing his Ph.D. candidacy in computational chemical physics at Texas Tech University. He then went on to co-found The Bitcoin Podcast Network and still serves as a host of the flagship The Bitcoin Podcast and a more technical show Hashing It Out. Corey left academia and entered the data science and blockchain security industry for a few years, attempting to fix vulnerabilities in ICS/SCADA networks before finding his fit as the head of security at Status, where he remains today.